Spatial measurement scale is a persistent issue in spatial analysis; more detail is available at the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) topic entry. Landscape ecologists developed a series of scale invariant metrics for aspects of ecology that are fractal in nature. In more general terms, no scale independent method of analysis is widely agreed upon for spatial statistics.
Spatial analysis using GIS platforms helps to elucidate the strength of the relationships between various stability factors and landslide failure, and is a useful tool for calculating landslide susceptibility.
Spatial analysis inevitably concerns itself with a finite region, a small bounded segment of an infinite space. Because of this finiteness of a study region, a boundary always exists, while any spatial phenomenon such as spatial distribution, association, interaction, and diffusion observed within the study region is most likely to extend beyond its boundary. In addition, the majority of spatial statistical theories has been developed on the basis of the infinite space assumption. Therefore, analysis confined within a bounded study region may well be biased because of the ignorance of the outside of the study region as well as